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2.4 Experimental equipment

The following equipment is now operational:

I. High-pressure apparatus
  1200 ton multi-anvil press (250 kbar, 3000 °C)
  1000 ton multi-anvil press (250 kbar, 3000 °C)
  3 piston-cylinders (0.5" and 0.75"; 4 GPa, 1800 °C)
  Cold-seal vessels (7 kbar, 750 °C, gas & H2O), TZM vessel (3 kbar, 1100 °C), rapid-quench equipment
II. Structural analysis
  2 X-ray powder diffractometers
  Single-crystal X-ray cameras
  X-ray powder microdiffractometer
  2 automated single-crystal X-ray diffractometers
  2 Mössbauer spectrometers (1.5 - 1300 K)
  Mössbauer millispectrometer
  Variable-pressure-temperature Mössbauer spectrometer
  FTIR spectrometer with IR microscope
  200 kV analytical transmission electron microscope
  3 high-resolution solid-state NMR spectrometers (100, 200, 300 MHz)
  Raman spectrometer
III. Chemical analysis
  Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe; fully-automated with 10-crystal, 4 spectrometer configuration, BSE detector and capability for light elements
  ICP analysis system
  Determination of water content by Karl-Fischer titration
IV. In-situ determination of properties
  2 calorimeters (77 - 1000 K scanning; 700 - 2200 K drop and scanning)
  2 dilatometers (to 1500 °C; viscosity by penetration, parallel-plate, fibre elongation and beam-bending; thermal expansivity measurements)
  Diamond anvil cells for X-ray single crystal diffraction, Raman scattering, infrared and optical spectroscopy and hydrothermal studies
  1-atm furnaces (to 2100 °C, gas mixing) including apparatus for viscometry, densitometry and galvanic thermo-chemistry, centrifuge studies
  Rotation viscometer
  Solid medium Griggs-Blacic deformation apparatus
  1-atm high-temperature creep apparatus
  Splat quencher
  1-atm seismic frequency torsion device
  Fragmentation bomb and chamber for studies of explosive volcanism
  2 high frequency ultrasonic interferometers (crystalline and molten materials)
  1 Gigahertz ultrasonic Interferometer and the adaptor to resistance-heated diamond-anvil cells
  Heating stage for fluid inclusion studies
  Impedance/gain-phase analyzer for electrical conductivity studies
  Internally heated autoclave for centrifuge studies

The Geoinstitut has access to an analytical scanning electron microscope and to the university computer centre.

The institute is provided with well equipped machine shops, electronic workshop and sample preparation laboratory. The institute has access to CYBER and VAX 8600 computers in the computer center of the university.

A third multianvil press (5000 t) and an internally heated autoclave (10 kbars, ca. 1500 °C) have been ordered and should become operational towards the end of 1996.

Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Tel: +49-(0) 921 55 3700 / 3766, Fax: +49-(0) 921 55 3769, E-mail: bayerisches.geoinstitut(at)